A very simple 19th-century software is nonetheless useful to ocean researchers in the age of satellites, new investigate demonstrates. The investigation is published in the journal Frontiers in Maritime Science.
A Secchi disk—historically termed a “dinner plate” by sailors—is applied in the open ocean to measure concentrations of microscopic algae known as phytoplankton. Sailors decreased the white disk into the water and report the depth at which it disappears.
In the new review, a investigation group which includes the College of Exeter, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit (Netherlands) and the Italian Institute of Maritime Sciences (ISMAR) compared the efficiency of Secchi disks with satellites and high-general performance chromatography.
Secchi disks done practically as very well as modern day procedures at monitoring phytoplankton abundance—meaning Secchi measurements going again far more than a century can assist scientists recognize extended-term improvements in the ocean.
“Phytoplankton make 50 % the world’s oxygen and form the foundation of ocean food items webs, so checking them will help us observe almost everything from local weather modify to the health and fitness of ecosystems,” explained Dr. Bob Brewin, from the Centre for Geography and Environmental Science on Exeter’s Penryn Campus in Cornwall.
“New know-how without doubt gives us new prospects, but our study shows Secchi disks do a excellent career of estimating chlorophyll (a way of measuring phytoplankton abundance)—which indicates we really should be in a position to integrate details from the previous with modern day measurements. This provides us a priceless supply of lengthy-time period knowledge on how our oceans are modifying.”
Secchi disks are still employed all all over the entire world to monitor ocean biomass and h2o high quality, and co-creator Dr. Jaime Pitarch, from ISMAR, reported the results guidance their ongoing use. “It truly is a easy, low cost software, but our research shows it is really also remarkably effective,” he reported.
In truth, researchers such as Dr. Brewin at Exeter, are operating on a project that will use 3D-printed Secchi disks to watch drinking water good quality in lakes in India and Africa, and coastal locations of the US.
Prior to the 1850s, mariners made use of a assortment of objects (in the exact way as Secchi disks) to assistance with navigation, like cloths, pans and plates.
It was the Vatican astronomer Angelo Secchi, invited by the Papal Navy Commander Alessandro Cialdi to be a part of a scientific cruise to study the murkiness of the sea in 1865, who standardized the approach.
The measurements in the new examine were being collected on Atlantic Meridional Transect cruises.
Far more information:
Robert J. W. Brewin et al, Evaluating historic and fashionable optical approaches for monitoring phytoplankton biomass in the Atlantic Ocean, Frontiers in Maritime Science (2023). DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2023.1111416
A 19th-century ‘dinner plate’ software is still useful in ocean science (2023, March 14)
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